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The State of UP has a total population of 16.61crores as per Census figures of year 2001. Urban population of 3.46 crore is located in 627 towns of varying population sizes. Rural population of 13.15 crore is scattered in 97069 habited villages of the State. These villages comprise of about 260110 habitations.

It has been observed that the choice of settlement of human agglomerations has prominently been dominated by easy availability of water     for drinking and agricultural purposes. It is also a fact that such agglomerations when developed along perennial source of water have     grown rapidly in shape and size. The larger agglomerations were subsequently termed as urban agglomerations.

In the State of Uttar Pradesh development works in and around such agglomerations were being looked after by Provincial Public Works Department. Keeping in view the specialized knowledge and skill that is required to provide safe and potable drinking water, a Sanitary Engineering Branch was established in 1894-95 under the administrative control of Provincial Public Works Department. The head of the branch was designated as Sanitary Engineer to the Government. This branch was entrusted with the job of preparation of water supply schemes and supervision of works their on. The job of annual inspection of mechanical plants and machinery installed at various water works was entrusted to the manufacturing firms / engineers, who charged a sizable amount of fee from Local Authority concerned.

By the end of 19th Century water works in following eight towns were established to provide piped water supply:
Agra Varanasi Allahabad Kanpur
Lucknow Meerut Mussoorie Nainital
The following situations and events played important role in development of piped water supply facilities in the State under British Rule

The system of annual inspection by private agencies was soon found to be unsatisfactory since the interested firms/manufacturers were not found to give a wholly correct and impartial picture of the condition of water works plants.

In the Year 1916, the U.P. Municipalities Act was enacted. In this Act public duties of the Municipal Boards were defined and detailed procedure was laid down giving effect to various matters of public interest. Sources of raising Board's revenues were also prescribed

On the termination of the First World War, another installment of reforms was conferred in 1920, which created a diarchal form of Government placing wider powers in Indian hands, by associating them increasingly with civil administration and putting the "transferred subjects" under the direct control of responsible Ministers. In the year 1920, Secretary of State for India sent out a number of specialist officers on the basis of covenanted service, to introduce health schemes on more up to date lines based on western model, as was recommended by the Royal Sanitary Commission. Accordingly a batch of seven Specialist Officers (six Sanitary Engineers and one Mechanical Engineer) arrived in Allahabad on the eve of the Christmas of 1920; they were attached to Sanitary Engineering Branch. These Specialist Officers gave out many recommendations on various issues, which reconfirmed the special nature of job of Sanitary Engineering Branch besides its need for further strengthening & expansion.

In 1943 Bhore Health Survey and Development Committee was formed to carry out detailed investigations as to the cause of existing unhealthy conditions and prevalence of various diseases. The Committee Report was published in 1946 and as one of the measures to reduce incidence of diseases, the Committee recommended installation of protected water supply and proper drainage system.

The sewerage systems in the afersaid 55 towns cover respective towns patially
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