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River Pollution Control Projects : Introduction
U P Jal Nigam is the Principal Implementing Agency for River Pollution Control Projects in the state of UP. Its task is to prevent direct flow of waste water into important river bodies of the state, so as to maintain water quality of these rivers to a satisfactory level. This is being done by diverting waste water/ domestic sewage flow to appropriate Treatment sites before being allowed to drain out in river bodies. So for 15 major towns located on the Banks of River Ganga, Yamuna and Gomti have been provide with waste water treatment facilities for cleaning about 42 % of its domestic sewage flow.
With social and technical advancement world wide, the level of pollution is also increasing in land, air and water. Land is subjected to pollution by dumping of different kind of toxic and non toxic wastes, excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides etc. The air is subjected to pollution by harmful gases emerging out of industries, transport vehicles, fuel wood etc. The water, specially river water subjected to pollution due to direct discharge of domestic sewage, industrial waste, agriculture run off, washing of cloths, open defecation along river bank, cattle wallowing and throwing of carcasses or half burnt dead bodies etc. into the river. The river water pollution are from point sources and non point sources. The point sources are discharge of domestic sewage through open drains and/or from sewerage system, industrial waste etc. The non point sources of pollution are agriculture run off, washing of cloths, cattle wallowing and throwing of carcasses or half burnt dead bodies etc
The rivers in India have religious importance, also the river water is a major source of drinking water for different towns and villages in the country. Due to increase in pollution level of the river water, the drinking water schemes are subjected to different level of pollution, thus causing different diseases, to its consumers, also the cost of treatment for purification of polluted river water increases tremendously. In the year 1985, the Government of India, initiated the program for the abatement of river pollution. To start the river pollution control program, the sacred river Ganga, was taken up in the beginning. The program named Ganga Action Plan (GAP) was launched by the Government of India in the year 1985 for conservation of the water quality of holy river Ganga. The objective of the  Plan was to initiate action to prevent pollution of the river Ganga resulting due to direct discharge of domestic sewage and industrial waste, as also because of non point pollution due to cattle wallowing, washing of cloths and throwing of Carcasses or half burnt dead bodies etc. into the river.
The basis of the Ganga Action Plan was provided by survey report and recommendations made by Central Pollution Control Board. For effective implementation of the GAP, the Govt. of India constituted the Central Ganga Authority in February,1985. The authority is chaired by the Hon'ble Prime Minister of India with Chief Ministers of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal as members along with some selected Union Ministers and Chief Secretaries as members. An inter departmental Steering Committee also was set up to formulate the strategy and the components of the Ganga Action Plan in detail and to administer and monitor the implementation of approved projects. In June, 1985, the Ganga Project Directorate was established under the ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India. The purpose of this Directorate, which is headed by Project Director of the level of Additional Secretary to the Govt. of India, is to appraise and clear the projects prepared by State agencies, release of funds, coordination of various activities and to monitor the implementation of the  Plan. This Directorate is now known as National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD).
GAP-Ganga Action Plan, GoAP- Gomti Action Plan, YAP - Yamuna Action Plan, GoI- Govt. Of India , GoUP- Govt. of U.P, NRCD- National River Conservation Directorate,&M - Operation and Maintenance,.C.E.A. - Cabinate Committee of Economic Affaiirs ,     S.T.P. - Sewage Treatment Plant.
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